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Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Issue 4 December 2006
Content

Simona Argentieri Bondi
Incest yesterday and today: from conflict to ambiguity      5
Summary: This paper deals with incest from the thoretical and clinical psychoanalytical viewpoint, without overlooking the various biological and socio-anthropological theories. Incestuous acting is differentiated from general sexual abuse and from incestuous phantasies. As well as the phenomenic aspects, the a. analyses the conscious and unconscious levels that lead individuals to practice incest, as well as the damage that incest inflicts on developmental processes. The traumatic effect impairs psychic organization by dis-articulating the oedipal developmental stages and related drive vicissitudes as well as the real roles of the family members. The theme of the incest is discussed regarding the two crucial post-freudian psychoanalytical achievements: the exploration of early developmental aspects of the psyche (pre-oedipal stage) and the knowledge about the "feminine" and about women. This leads to the discussion of different psychoanalitical paradigms. The a. further remarks the devastating effects , both at the intrapsychic and at the interpersonal dimension, of the failure to differentiate aspects of sensorial tenderness from the erotic. Within a context of generalized tendency of regressive defences towards indifferentiation in the present time, in wich the oedipal crux seems slackened if not avoided altogether, the a. wonders wheter perhaps incest provokes today less anxiety, less guilt and less horror, but no less damage.
Emanuel Tanay
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Myth and Reality      29
Summary The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Myth has been created over time to frame the event as a guerrilla-like, belated resistance of the Warsaw Jews to the genocide. In reality, only a very small fraction of the ghetto's population, totaling 220 young people, instigated and carried out the uprising on April 19, 1943. The suicidal, futile nature of this event is frequently denied, but we the Holocaust survivors know that resistance was impossible and playing for time was the only avenue of frustrating the genocidal program. The mythical version of the Uprising is inconsistent with the reality and memoirs of those who participated in the event.
 
  Anne-Marie Ullmann and Dov R. Aleksandrowicz
The Death of a Hospital: Krakow Psychiatric Institute Under German Occupation     45
Summary The Nazi ideology considered mentally or physically impaired people to be useless individuals, "life not worth living" and a burden to the society. As the war approached the German Government took steps to rid the State of the burden and free the facilities for war-related use. In August 1939 8,000 physically or mentally handicapped children were exterminated. Over 70,000 psychiatric patients were sent to converted mental hospitals, gassed and cremated between October 1939 and August 1941 ("Aktion T4"). The systematic extermination continued in occupied Poland (Aktion Brandt). The German administrator of The Babinski psychiatric hospital in Kobierzyn, Krakow, exterminated hundreds of patients by starving them systematically. In August 1941, 91 Jewish patients were transported from Kobierzyn to Zofiowka Jewish Psychiatric Hospital in Otwock near Warsaw, Subsequently they were sent to Treblinka camp and murdered together with most of the staff. The remaining patients in Kobierzyn were either shot or deported to Auschwitz in June 1942 and killed there. The Babinski Hospital in Kobierzyn re-opened after the war; Zofiowka is abandoned but plans are made to turn it into a memorial center.
Joanna Rymaszewska, Tomasz Adamowski, Tomasz Hadryœ, Andrzej Kiejna
Social functioning determinants in chosen mental disorders     51
Summary The aim of this article is to assess the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors on social functioning in schizophrenic, affective and anxiety disorders. Method. Patients of age between 18 and 65, suffering from schizophrenia, affective or anxiety disorders and treated in mental hospitals in five European cities were examined at admission to hospital and 3 months after discharge. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Groningen Social Disability Schedule (GSDS) were used. Statistical methods (ANOVA and MANCOVA) were performed on the three groups investigated to assess the relation between social functioning and diagnosis. Results. Family situation, city of residence (in acute states) and BPRS mean scores were found to be significantly associated with the level of social disability among the group of patients with schizophrenia. In the group with affective disorders, the severity of the symptoms, city and occupational status (during remission) were associated with the level of social disability. In the group with anxiety disorders the severity of symptoms was correlated with the level of social disability. Age, study centre and hospitalization had a similar association, but only in acute states. Conclusions. The severity of psychopathological symptoms plays a significant role in determining the level of social functioning, regardless of the diagnosis. In all three diagnostic groups the city of residence determined the level of social disability, which was lowest in the two western cities (London, Dresden), and highest in Wrocław. Being in a relationship is associated with a low level of social disability for patients with schizophrenia. Occupational activity is associated with a high level of social functioning for patients with affective disorders.
 
  Karol Grabowski, Hubert M. Wichowicz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Sexual behaviours among medical students of the Medical University of Gdańsk     63
Summary Aim: The aim of this study was to present sexual behaviours, needs and expectations as well as attitudes towards contraception among students of the Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk Method: A group of 340 medical students ranging in age from18 to 28 (195 females and 118 males) were administered a questionnaire from October till December 2003. The examined group served as a representative sample of the investigated population (?2 test: p>0.005 for the entire group and both sexes). 313 questionnaires were submitted for further analysis. The questionnaire used was comprised of three groups of questions: those concerning relationships and associated sexuality, questions concerning attitudes towards various aspects of sexuality and a set of questions dedicated to the role of sexology in the medical curriculum, as well as in general medical practice. The present paper addresses various forms of sexual behaviours and attitudes towards contraception based on the subjects' responses. Results: The examined group consisted of well educated individuals in theoretical and practical aspects of sexually-related phenomena. The effective contraception methods consist of those widely used in the studied population. The preferred form of contraception during the sample was condoms, followed by oral contraceptives. The initiation of sexual activity occurred while involved in an emotional relationship as opposed to casual relationships. The subjects indicated that love was the main factor positively influencing the quality of their sexual life, followed by partner's loyalty and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion: The sample studied had a positive attitude towards alternative forms of sexual practices. The subjects perceived sex as an important aspect of their functioning and reported being satisfied with their sexual partners.
Piotr Gałecki
Pro-and antioxidant processes in schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia     75
Summary Central nervous system diseases are connected with the production of an increased amount of reactive oxygen species. Decreased antioxidant activity is considered as one of the reasons of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenic patients in a prolonged neuroleptic treatment course. Aim: The evaluation of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activity as well as lipid peroxidation by TBARS saturation in blood paleted in schizophrenic patients with or without tardive dyskinesia symptoms. Material and methods: 84 paranoid schizophrenic patients took part in the study, 40 of them with TD symptoms. The groups were comparative in clinical and demographic terms. Indication of TBARS in blood paleted was performed by Placed and others' method. GSH-Px activity was indicated by Little and O?Brien method. CAT activity was indicated according to the Beers and others' method. CuZnSOD activity in blood paleted was indicated by Mirsa and Fridovich method. Results: CuZnSOD activity in schizophrenic patients without TD is 820.23 and accordingly 710.75 U/g in TD symptoms patients and it is statistical essential. TBARS for patients with TD is 1.06 and accordingly without TD is 0.92 ľmol/109, the difference is statistically essential. For groups with and without TD CAT activity is 19.87 and 17.93Ub/g accordingly and GSH-Px is 32.30 and 30.48 U/g. Conclusions: Schizophrenic patients with TD symptoms have lower CuZnSOD activity and higher concentration of TBARS in the paleted blood than patients without TD. CAT activity is higher in patients with TD symptoms. CuZnSOD activity and concentration of TBARS are in correlation with age in both groups under study.
 
 
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